Makai Videos
MakaiPlan Pro MakaiLay Power Module Seismic Module Repair Module Lease-to-Own

For the first time, cable engineers can "see below" to visualize how dynamic events affects placement of their cable onto the seabed. Such knowledge improves their ability to reliably lay cables with a high degree of placement accuracy and slack/tension control.

The following video clips show different aspects of MakaiPlan, MakaiPlan Pro, and MakaiLay.

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Submarine Cable Installation: Power, Telecom, and Seismic Cables (MakaiLay)
Submarine cable installations in the telecom, power and seismic industries have similarities and differences. But there is a common thread in every submarine cable lay: you need accurate real-time control over the position and bottom tension of your cable as it lands on the seabed. This video discusses a proven method for achieving this control being used by over 75% of the telecom cable ships in the world.

MakaiLay allows operators to precisely control the two most important variables in a cable installation: cable POSITION and TENSION. This software calculates all forces on the cable and can automatically adjust cable payout speed and vessel navigation to keep tension within acceptable limits, safely and accurately installing the cable on the seabed. Over the last 15 years, MakaiLay has become the #1 subsea cable installation package in the world, used by over 3/4 of the world’s submarine cable ships to successfully install well over 500,000 kilometers of submarine cable.
 
Note: This video includes narration.

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MakaiPlan: Route Planning Demo
This video shows a screen capture of an actual route planning software called MakaiLay. The relevant GIS data like topography and bathymetry of the area of the lay have been added.

Next step is to create a route. Use the edit tool in the plan view to easily make any changes you want to the route. You can move a single route point, group of route points together, delete points, append points, etc.

Then you can automatically calculate the depth profile along the path. You can also look at slope vs KP to make sure that you are going over any severe slopes. Profile view and plan view are tied together so that you know exactly where you are editing the route. This is useful but the best part is that this gets updated as you keep editing the path in plan view.

You can easily make existing cables thicker.You can import the information about existing cables in the lay area using a GIS tool tip that will show up on the plan view with all the pertinent information.

The path crossing tool can automatically find and mark all crossings for you. It will also automatically add these points to the path and will comment them so that you are aware of them.

Route Position List (RPLs) created on the fly: Software also provides the RPL and SLD’s automatically. You can customize the fields you want to see, add fields, and export/import RPLs easily. It will also show you the selected point in the plan view, and as you make manual changes, the plan view will be updated.

The bottom line is that this is a very mature tool that has been improved and optimized for subsea cable route planning for the last 18 years. It greatly streamlines the route planning process, saving time and money.
 

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MakaiPlan Pro: Cable Installation Planning and Simulation Demo
MakaiPlan Pro and MakaiPlan have similar user interfaces but with Pro, there are three windows: Plan View, 3D Viewer, and the Cable Solutions / Ship Data windows.

1) Plan View is available in this software and you can perform all the tasks available in MakaiPlan. In addition, it becomes a navigation system, showing dynamic data such as ship position, ROV, and plow positions. Real-time data can be input into the model and run at every time step.

2) The user-defined table in this clip is showing the current time, ship speed, payout speed, bottom tension, cable off-path distance, and the touchdown depth. You can use to keep track of calculated cable solutions in real-time.

3) A separate 3D viewer shows the calculated cable shape of cable in the water column. What you are seeing is series of cable shapes in the water column over time. These are past shapes and this is the latest shape the model calculated. You can tilt, pan and zoom this view as you want.

What you can do in the simulation mode is test out your ship instructions. You will have an Ship Position List (SPL) and just like the Route Position List (RPL), and you can edit it as you want. You can then try out the ship instructions and if you are not satisfied with it, you can go back edit and ship instructions and retry. You can keep doing this until you are satisfied with the ship plan. There are options to add instrument errors, operator errors, and current profiles to your simulations to take these factors into account while planning.

The end result is a more accurate and well-designed installation plan, with less surprises when going to sea for installation.
 

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MakaiLay Power
MakaiLay Power is the newest cable installation control software developed by Makai Ocean Engineering. It has been specifically designed and rigorously validated for the accurate installation of power cables. The new Makailay Power represents an improved version of the successful MakaiLay software which has been adopted by over 80% of the deep water telecommunication and array cable installers in the world. MakaiLay has been used to lay over 200,000 km of submarine cable by the commercial, military and scientific community and has been rigorously validated several times over the past two decades.

MakaiLay Power allows for the installation of cables with much higher speed and accuracy than those achieved with conventional cable lay techniques. This video describes some of the key advantages of the software.

Overview: MakaiLay Power provides a method for accurately determining cable bottom tension and shape for planning, simulation, & training, and during at-sea cable installations. This tool reduces the risk of cable failure caused by installing cables with too much tension or zero tension. This software is particularly useful in deep waters and for bathymetry with steep slopes where it is impossible to accurately estimate bottom tension using measured top conditions like top tension and top cable angle. With an accurate picture of the cable conditions below the sea surface, operators can significantly reduce the time, labor & cable material cost, and risk involved in subsea power cable installation, while extending the life of the cable asset.
 
Note: This video includes narration

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Makai’s Digital Terrain Modelling Tool
The Makai Digital Terrain Model, or DTM, is an optional module for MakaiPlan that enables planners to easily process and visualize original survey X,Y,Z point data. Users can visualize the bottom features that may impact the cable installation. DTM allows users to process and transform raw survey data into easily recognizable maps, images, and contours from which to view the seafloor conditions including bottom slopes along and across the route.

Using an automated wizard, DTM can import and divide large survey datasets into a series of overlapping data blocks. The automation tools enable users to grid data rapidly and easily, create and view grid maps, shaded relief maps, and create GeoTIFFs. Once the 3D survey data is imported, all of the usual MakaiPlan features, such as superimposing the RPL on the map and generating depth and slope graphs, can be performed.
 
 

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MakaiSpan Modelling Tool for Analyzing Cable Spans
In this video we discuss a program named MakaiSpan which is a modeling tool specifically written for analyzing cable spans. This tool is part of the power cable module available with MakaiPlan Pro for planning a safe cable lay from the office. MakaiSpan is designed to assist cable engineers in calculating the shape of the cable on the seafloor during a lay accurately, including the free spans, the forces on the cable at the seafloor, bend radii, and shear forces and moments along the suspended cable. The inputs used by the software are bathymetry profiles, the physical properties of the cable (including wet weight and bending stiffness), and the applied horizontal tension. The software then calculates a full 2 dimensional cable shape along the seafloor. Results are displayed graphically and can be viewed in tabular form as well.
 
Note: This video includes narration

 

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Makai’s Heave Analysis Tool for Subsea Power Cables
As a ship heaves up and down with the waves, cable tension and bend radius of the cable catenary can be impacted, potentially damaging the cable. To simulate these effects on the cable, a Heave Analysis tool comes with the Power modules for MakaiPlan Pro and MakaiLay. This tool enables users to perform analyses for different sea states and lay conditions to ensure that tensions and bend radii are within allowable limits during the installation. Users can import the vessel RAOs and impose wave spectra to create realistic ship motions (heaving, pitching, etc.) and then analyze the impact on cable tensions and bend radii. The tool can be used in office to design a safe lay with MakaiPlan Pro, or at-sea with MakaiLay to make fast decisions about the lay as conditions change and contingencies arise.
 
Note: This video includes narration

 

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MakaiLay Seismic Introduction
MakaiLay Seismic is an extension of the successful cable installation software, MakaiLay, developed by Makai Ocean Engineering and currently used by over 75% of the deep water cable installers in the world to accurately lay military arrays, telecommunication and power cables with a high degree of placement and slack/tension accuracy. MakaiLay Seismic runs on a PC under Windows XP/7/8 operating system. MakaiLay Seismic has been specifically designed to address the new challenge faced by the seismic industry to accurately install and retrieve Ocean Bottom Cables (OBC) in mid- and deep waters.
 
Note: This video includes narration.

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MakaiLay Seismic Cable Retrieval
This video shows how MakaiLay Seismic can be used to safely and rapidly retrieve submarine arrays from the seabed. Historically, arrays have been retrieved with high tensions in order to prevent the array from looping back on itself or fouling with seafloor obstacles. However, high tensions have resulted in damage to the sensors and the array. Today, arrays are being retrieved at conservative speeds to minimize damage to the cable. Slower speeds result in longer retrieval operations and an increase in costs. MakaiLay Seismic provides cable engineers with real-time feedback of the cable touchdown and tension on the seafloor and on the effect of cross currents acting on the array. Therefore, the tension of the cable can be better controlled during the retrieval process maximizing cost savings while minimizing array damage.
 
Note: This video includes narration

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Geophone Installation
This video shows the installation of a seismic array with geophones (Z-pods) spaced every 25 meters along an almost neutrally buoyant rope in waters 300 m deep. As the sensors approach the seabed, they sink faster than the rope and generate additional slack on the seabed affecting the final separation between consecutive sensors. Later in the movie, we show how by controlling the cable payout rate, we can apply a slight tension on the seabed to eliminate any seabed slack and assure that the sensor separation remains at a constant 25 m as desired.

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Oil Rig Seismic Array Deployment
This video shows the deployment of a seismic array near an oil rig. Sensors are spaced every 50 m along the cable (red spots) and water depth is 450 m. The MakaiLay Seismic software can incorporate real-time measurements of the currents and position data provided by transponders on the cable in order to improve the accuracy at which sensors are installed on the seabed. Note that while the vessel changes course continuously at the surface in order to compensate for the changing currents, the cable on the seabed follows very close the desired route and sensors land close to their targets (targets indicated by the vertical lines).

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MakaiLay Branching Unit Deployment
MakaiLay can control the installation of at-sea branching units (BUs) which are used in Navy surveillance array operations. Here MakaiLay is shown modelling a retrieval, splice, and deployment of a BU.
Real-time modeling during repair and maintenance operations will provide:
– Real-time performance feedback and assistance
– Retrieval with lower tensions = less cable dragging = less damage to array/sensors
– Retrieval at higher speeds, saving time and money
– Expect to increase overall operational efficiency by 25% to 35% and reduce Navy ops cost by over $1.0 mil/yr

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3D Dynamic Cable Model
Installation planning and simulation software provides in real-time the shape of the cable in the water column that the user can monitor. It takes into account all the cable properties and resolves all the forces on the cable segment by segment. It accounts for the terrain changes, ship maneuvers, payout changes and if available ocean currents. At the end the model computes a full mathematical solution of the cable catenary. This provides the user position and tension of the cable at the touch-down location in real-time that they can monitor.

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Typical Cable Installation Problems
When installing a subsea cable, there are several common pitfa lls: laying with too much tension or with high slack / low tension.

High slack / low tension can result in using more cable than is necessary and increase the chance of unwanted loops. Also, laying a power cable with low tension or slack could result in a damaging kink at the touchdown.

On the other hand, installing a cable with tension that is too high will result in suspensions leading to extreme forces at the contact points. This exposes the cable to higher current forces, which vibrate the cable, causing wear and in some cases failure at the heavily loaded contact points.

MakaiLay provides tension control for cables where a residual tension at the seabed is needed. A feature called AutoTension automatically adjusts cable payout to keep tension within acceptable limits; paying out cable faster when it is too high, and vice versa when it is too low.

Some in the telecom industry have moved to more Automation — for longer lays — this eliminates the need to have a cable engine operator at all times.
 
Note: This video includes narration

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Monitoring and Real-Time Control plus “Look-Ahead”
The cable installer can use the software to monitor the bottom tension and position of the cable along the lay. But in some cases, this is not enough and you will need the feature called “look-ahead”. This allows you to predict future instructions needed for the vessel navigation and cable payout to ensure an accurate lay of the cable. For example when laying through a turn, as you can see the ship has to take a different route to lay the cable on path. At any point of the lay, you can run the look-ahead to figure out the future ship route. Since the look-ahead simulates the lay at 50X real-time, you will have time to make these adjustments.
 
Note: This video includes narration

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Using Real-Time Current Data
In cases where ocean currents are significant, an ADCP can be used to measure the currents in real-time. The At-sea cable lay management software can them include these measured currents in the model. Further, using the look-ahead, you can quickly figure out how to move the ship off-track to compensate for these ocean currents and still lay the cable on the desired path.
 
Note: This video includes narration

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3D Viewer, Pt. 1
This video shows a 3-D view of a time-stepped series of cable shapes, at 2-minute intervals, for a typical cable installation with a single ship altercourse followed by a change in the cable type (e.g., lightweight protected to single armor). The ship moves toward the right along the ship path, angled due to the perspective. To the left while laying the lightweight cable, the solutions are nearly steady-state straight lines. Toward the right, a heavier cable is installed as the ship negotiates an altercourse (vertical line). The cable shape then becomes dynamic (due to the differences in sinking rate of the cables) and the cable touchdown slack varies from the steady-state solution.

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3D Viewer, Pt. 2
MakaiLay uses a 3D, finite segment, time-stepping model to accurately calculate the cable shape and associated inline bodies as they descend through the water column. This video shows two large altercourses (representing a total change in course of 165°), a transition from a lightweight protected to a single armor cable type and the deployment of several heavy repeaters. The weight of the inline bodies result in touchdown of the bodies on the seafloor before the cable between the bodies and the generation of slack before and after touchdown. Towards the end of the video, one can see the transient of the cable in the water column as the vessel speed decreases.

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3D Viewer, Pt. 3
A plan view of the simulation of laying a cable and repeater while negotiating an altercourse. The ship maneuvers outside the RPL path with two additional altercourses in order to place the repeater and cable more closely along the cable path and away from the seamount to the right. The dashed line shows the touchdown if the ship follows the RPL path. At the illustrated moment, the ship is at the top of the illustration while the touch-down is just beyond the repeater at the bottom,16 km behind the ship. Water depth is 4000 meters and the ship speed is 5 knots.

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3D Viewer, Pt. 4
This video shows the first part of the installation: a repeater is deployed and is malfunctioning as it nears the touchdown point, so it must be retrieved. Initially, the vessel stops while cable is still being paid out at reduced rates in order to maintain cable bottom slack at the 3.5% target value. In order to decrease the time for the retrieval operation, the vessel backs up. It moves back increasing its speed from 0 to 1 m/s while cable is paid out, at ever decreasing speeds. Throughout this operation, average bottom slack is kept at 3.5%. Finally, both vessel and cable are being retrieved at 2 knots maintaining small values of bottom tension (< 350 kg).

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3D Viewer, Pt. 5
A continuation of the retrieval process is shown in this video. The vessel is moving from left to right at 2 knots as cable is retrieved. The repeater is lifted off the bottom, and as the repeater nears the surface, the vessel stops while additional cable is retrieved to always maintain a residual tension on the bottom. Cable retrieval is finally stopped, and cable bottom tension is kept at 400 kg while the vessel maintains position.

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3D Viewer, Pt. 6
Once the repeater is repaired, the installation proceeds as shown in this video. The vessel speeds up to 3 knots while the cable payout is slowly increased. The cable on the bottom goes from a tensioned condition (400 kg) to a slack condition over a distance of 1 km. After this, payout is controlled to maintain the 3.5% target value of bottom slack. Almost four hours after re-starting the lay, the repeater is safely on the seafloor.

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UUV Array Deployment
Makai has spent a tremendous amount of R&D effort into testing, validating and expanding their dynamic, 3D cable model for other applications, such as the oil and gas industry, the deployment of seafloor arrays, and the deployment of surveillance arrays. This video shows a UUV deploying and array with multiple in-line sensors. Note the strong cross currents forcing the cable to one side of the route. MakaiLay can predict accurately the location of the sensors on the seafloor.

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