Shore Crossings for Pipe Installations
Coastal Engineering analysis of waves, currents, soil conditions and sand transport are an integral part of Makai’s numerous pipe projects.
Beach Erosion Analysis
Makai performed a beach erosion analysis for the State of Hawaii, Coastal Zone Management. More than seventy miles of Hawaiian beaches were analyzed for erosion and acretion over the past thirty to forty years. Makai used over 500 historical aerial photographs combined with recent aerial flights and site visits to determine the long term dynamics of these beaches. The emphasis of the program was to very accurately locate present and historical shorelines within the state’s coordinate system.
By developing a digitizing process and software to precisely analyze aerial photographs correcting for distortion, rotation, scale, focal length, and camera tilt; the historical shorelines were located within the Hawaii State Grid System to an accuracy of a few feet. The final product was a published 200 page atlas with maps, photographs, and graphs for each beach: Aerial Photograph Analysis of Coastal Erosion on the Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Lanai, Maui and Hawaii, 1991. The maps and digitized data were also provided to the State in ArcInfo for inclusion in Hawaii’s GIS system.